[105] According to the Generalquartiermeister der Luftwaffe, 59 Stukas had been destroyed and 33 damaged to varying degrees in six weeks of operations. 1117. The center section had a large negative dihedral (anhedral) and the outer surfaces a positive dihedral. The C-1 was to have two MG 17s mounted in the wing with a MG 15 operated by the rear gunner. of StG 77. [20] Rhathid, "Eventually I want a Stuka Dive Bomber, but I want it with the whistle siren. Pilots also complained that navigation and powerplant instruments were mixed together, and were not easy to read, especially in combat. Production of the D-1 variant started in 1941 with 495 ordered. HMS Bittern was sunk on 30 April. All these delays set back testing until 25 February 1936. [22], The offensive armament was two 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 machine guns fitted one in each wing outboard of undercarriage, operated by a mechanical pneumatics system from the pilot's control column. [54] The planes dived through cloud, expecting to release their practice bombs and pull out of the dive once below the cloud ceiling, unaware that on that particular day the ceiling was too low and unexpected ground mist formed, leaving them no time to pull out of the dive. However, the mostly complete Ju 87 V1 W.Nr.c 4921 (less non-essential parts) took off for its maiden flight on 17 September 1935. He was awarded a posthumous Victoria Cross for remaining at his post despite being mortally wounded. StG 77 lost 24 Ju 87s in the period 5–31 July (StG had lost 23 in July–December 1942), while StG 2 lost another 30 aircraft in the same period. The Stuka siren has been made louder. [120] Orion had been evacuating 1,100 soldiers to North Africa; 260 of them were killed and another 280 wounded. The Ju 87 V11 was designated C-0 on 8 October 1938. [58] [141] The Stukawaffe strength stood at 151. Lehrgeschwader 2's IV. [115] The Stuka once again spearheaded the air assault, with a front line strength of 300 machines, against minimal Yugoslav resistance in the air, allowing the Stukas to develop a fearsome reputation in this region. (St)/LG1, operating from Norway, lost 24 Ju 87s, all in aerial combat. [19], A Ju 87 B wreck reveals the main spars and ribs. On the morning of 15 August 1939, during a mass-formation dive-bombing demonstration for high-ranking commanders of the Luftwaffe at Neuhammer training grounds near Sagan, 13 Ju 87s and 26 crew members were lost when they crashed into the ground almost simultaneously. [69] [34] As well as the installation of the Jumo 210D, the A-1 had two 220 L (60 US gal) fuel tanks built into the inner wing, but it was not armoured or protected. The Ju 87 B-2is a rank I German dive bomber with a battle rating of 1.7 (AB/RB) and 1.3 (SB). [114], In March, the pro-German Yugoslav government was toppled. In a crouched position, pilots could withstand 7.5 g and were able to remain functional for a short duration. The two that remained were fed a total of 500 rounds of ammunition, stored in the undercarriage "spats". The B-2 also had an oil hydraulic system for closing the cowling flaps. [3] The Chief of the Air Weapons Command Bureau, Walther Wever, and the Secretary of State for Aviation, Erhard Milch, feared that such high-level nerves and skill could not be expected of "average pilots" in the Luftwaffe. The pilot released the bomb and initiated the automatic pull-out mechanism by depressing a knob on the control column. The Ju 87s first made their presence felt by subjecting the British aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious to heavy attack. A Daimler-Benz DB 603 powerplant was to be installed in the Ju 87 D-1, but it did not have the power of the Jumo 211 and performed "poorly" during tests and was dropped. Jack : The Stuka was a dive-bomber. With the RAF bases some 500 kilometres (310 mi) away, the Ju 87 helped the German landing forces rapidly conquer the islands.[127]. Pilots were trained at night, over unfamiliar terrain, and forced to rely on their instruments for direction. Fliegerkorps under the command of General der Flieger Wolfram von Richthofen was equipped with units Stab, II. [46] Total production amounted to 697 B-1s (311 by Junkers, 386 by Weserflug) and 225 B-2s (56 by Junkers, 169 by Weserflug). Should this shut down, it could be pumped manually using a hand-pump on the fuel cock armature. Engine power was increased again, the Jumo 211J now delivering 1,420 PS (1,044 kW, 1,401 hp). The first production version was the Ju 87 B-1, with a considerably larger engine, its Junkers Jumo 211D generating 1,200 PS (883 kW, 1,184 hp), and completely redesigned fuselage and landing gear. The first A series variant, the A-0, was of all-metal construction, with an enclosed cockpit. Udet cancelled the order the next day, and development continued. Although the testing went well, and the pilot, Flight Captain Hesselbach, praised its performance, Wolfram von Richthofen told the Junkers representative and Construction Office chief engineer Ernst Zindel that the Ju 87 stood little chance of becoming the Luftwaffe's main dive bomber, as it was underpowered in his opinion. None of the dedicated close-support designs on the drawing board progressed far due to the impact of the war and technological difficulties. Operations on a small scale continued throughout the winter months into March. ", "WWII Plane Wreck On Bottom Of Baltic Sea Not JU87 Stuka Divebomber, But Larger JU88 Aircraft", http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/06/15/wwii-plane-wreck-not-stuk_0_n_1599616.html, Test flight and combat debut of the "Kanonenvogel" - wartime video, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Junkers_Ju_87?oldid=4784332, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls. The crews were confident that they could sink it as the flight deck had an area of about 6,500 square metres. Apart from attacking military targets, it focused on raiding towns and villages, often deliberately causing civilian casualties. [70] The G-1 later influenced the design of the A-10 Thunderbolt II, with Hans Rudel's book, Stuka Pilot being required reading for all members of the A-X project.[71]. [58] While being escorted by Bf 109s from JG 51 to attack Brest Fortress, Oberleutnant Karl Führing of StG 77 was shot down by an I-153. The aircraft then rolled 180°, automatically nosing the aircraft into a dive. These tools were also in short supply, and the RLM hoped to purchase them from Switzerland and Italy. Human beings subjected to more than 5 g forces in a seated position will suffer vision impairment in the form of a grey veil known to Stuka pilots as "seeing stars". In spite of this, because there was no better replacement, the type continued to be produced until 1944. The Hs 129B had proved a potent ground attack weapon, but its large fuel tanks made it vulnerable to enemy fire, prompting the RLM to say "that in the shortest possible time a replacement of the Hs 129 type must take place. Not until June–December 1942 did production capacity increase, and 80 Ju 87s were produced per month. [59], Kette of Ju 87 Ds in flight, October/November 1943, The internal fuel capacity of the Ju 87D was raised to 800 L (of which 780 L were usable) by adding additional wing tanks while retaining the option to carry two 300 L drop tanks. The Weserflug plant in Lemwerder experienced production shortfalls. load for short ranges, overload condition), a typical bomb load ranged from 500-1,200 kg (1,100-2,650 lb). The first Stuka loss on the Soviet-German front occurred early at 03:40–03:47 in the morning of the 22 June. Verge : No, by God that has never interested me but do tell me about it. Navy—i.e., … As a result of the Luftwaffe's attention, the Soviet Air Force in the western Soviet Union was nearly destroyed. The Ju 87 R-1 had a B-1 airframe with the exception of a modification in the fuselage which enabled an additional oil tank. D-1 and D-3 variants operated in combat with the 37 mm (1.46 in) BK 37 cannon in 1943.[66]. The headquarters of the commander responsible for ordering the destruction of the bridges along the Albert Canal was stationed in the village of Lanaken (14 km/ mi to the north). According to this version of the story, Heinkel warned Udet about the propeller's fragility. It was also equipped with a siren, the Jericho-Trompete ("Jericho Trumpet"), which in a dive would unleash a morale crushing whine. Designed by Hermann Pohlmann, the Stuka first flew in 1935 and made its combat debut in 1936 as part of the Luftwaffe's Condor Legion during the Spanish Civil War. The Stuka operated with further success after the Battle of Britain, and its potency as a precision ground-attack aircraft became valuable to German forces in the Balkans Campaign, the African and Mediterranean theaters and the early stages of the Eastern Front campaigns where Soviet fighter resistance was disorganised and in short supply. [61] Other modifications included a flame eliminator and, unlike earlier D variants, two 20 mm MG 151/20 cannon, while the radio operator/rear gunner's ammunition supply was increased by 1,000 to 2,000 rounds. The Weserflug company was tasked with their production. The machine was also fitted with dive brakes for dive testing. [93] The Ju 87 repair facility at the Wels aircraft works was destroyed on 30 May 1944, and the site abandoned Ju 87 links. By 15 December 1939, 915 arrested landings on dry land had been made. The only further significant difference between the A-1 and A-2 was the H-PA-III controllable-pitch propeller. The tropicalised versions were initially named the Ju 87 B-2/U1. That afternoon, 33 Ju 87s delivered the single most deadly air assault on British territory in history, when 33 Ju 87s of III./StG 51, avoiding Royal Air Force (RAF) interception, sank the 5,500 ton anti-aircraft ship HMS Foylebank in Portland Harbour, killing 176 of its 298 crew. Gruppe (St)/Lehrgeschwader 1 (LG 1).[128]. I ran 74 and 2 with my Stuka this morning on Hamada playing breakthrough. The Ju 87's principal designer, Hermann Pohlmann, held the opinion that any dive-bomber design needed to be simple and robust. [130] In the next two days, the Soviets reported the loss of another 1,922 aircraft. The Ju 87 made its combat debut in 1937 with the Luftwaffe's Condor Legion during the Spanish Civil War and served the Axis forces in World War II. With 40%, vision vanished altogether from 7.5 g upwards and black-out sometimes occurred. This increased fuel capacity to 1,080 litres (500 L in main fuel tank of which 480 L where usable + 600 L from drop tanks). In the next six months, 438 Ju 87 Ds and Gs were added to the Ju 87 force as new or repaired aircraft. 89 B-1s were to be built at Junkers' factory in Dessau and another 40 at the Weserflug plant in Lemwerder by July 1937. This is a comparison between Stuka Siren in Dunkirk and Original Stuka Siren from WW2 (Ju 87). In 80-degree dives to within 2,300 … I did some research on more ju87 variants, and as in the photos above, my sources did correspond. At less than 4 g, no visual problems or loss of consciousness were experienced. [6] [58] In addition, armor protection was increased and a new dual-barrel 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 81Z machine gun with an extremely high rate of fire was installed in the rear defensive position. The armour reduced its performance and caused the Oberkommando der Luftwaffe to "place no particular value on the production of the D-2". The Ju 87s delivered six and three damaging near-misses but the ship's engines were untouched and she made for the besieged harbour of Malta. The G-2 was similar to the G-1 except for use of the extended wing of the D-5. [89], The Stukas, however, had numerous successes against Allied naval vessels. Stukas were equipped with sirens which were called Jericho trumpets. On 18 August, known as the Hardest Day because both sides suffered heavy losses, the Stuka was withdrawn after 16 were destroyed and many others damaged. I'm sure you know what I'm talking about. [19], The fuselage had an oval cross-section and housed a water-cooled inverted-V V-12 engine. [91] The Stukageschwader were now equipped with the new Ju 87 R, which differed from the Ju 87 B by having increased internal fuel capacity and two 300l underwing drop tanks for more range. For example, on 12 May, near Sedan, six French Curtiss H-75s from Groupe de Chasse I/5 attacked a formation of Ju 87s, shooting down 11 out of 12 unescorted Ju 87s without loss. It was decided to keep the design as it was, but to upgrade the powerplant to a Jumo 211J, and add two 30 mm (1.18 in) cannon. The A-0 also had a flatter engine cowling, which gave the pilot a much better field of vision. It was able to withstand diving speeds of 600 km/h (373 mph) and a maximum level speed of 340 km/h (211 mph) near ground level, and a flying weight of 4,300 kg (9,480 lb). [59], The D-6, according to "Operating instructions, works document 2097", was built in limited numbers to train pilots on "rationalised versions". The Stuka's design included several innovative features, including automatic pull-up dive brakes under both wings to ensure that the aircraft recovered from its attack dive even if the pilot blacked out from the high acceleration. The Ju 87R had a B-series airframe with an additional oil tank and fuel lines to the outer wing stations to permit the use of two 300 L (79,25 US gal) under-wing drop tanks. As a result, the Stukas suffered heavily. Demoralised, the Poles surrendered. In June 1941, the RLM ordered five prototypes, the Ju 87 V21–25. Udet failed to consider this, so in a dive, the engine oversped and the propeller broke away. On 23 July 1942, Junkers offered the Ju 87 B-2, R-2 and R-4s with Flammenvernichter ("flame eliminators"). The Luftwaffe committed StG 1, 2 and 77 to the campaign. [137], At the end of Barbarossa, StG 1 had lost 60 Stukas in aerial combat and one on the ground. [87] A number of Ju 87 D-3s were designated D-3N or D-3 trop and fitted with night or tropical equipment. Ju 87 Stuka dive bomber and its pilot Erich Rudorffer writing in the field in Russia, summer 1944. However, the mission failed and the Poles destroyed the bridge before the Germans could reach it. BROWSE NOW >>> Testing revealed that at high altitude, even 2 g could cause death in an unpressurised cabin and without appropriate clothing. [53] The underpowered Jumo 210A, as pointed out by von Richthofen, was insufficient, and was quickly replaced with the Jumo 210D power plant.[33]. These gun pods were fitted to a Ju 87 D-1, W.Nr 2552 as "Gustav the tank killer". The D-3 was an improved D-1 with more armour for its ground-attack role. The cockpit was protected from the engine by a firewall ahead of the wing center section where the fuel tanks were located. [1], Ernst Udet; the greatest proponent of the dive-bomber and the Ju 87 (Photo 1928), After the Nazis came to power, the design was given priority. In January 1943, a variety of Ju 87 Ds became "test beds" for the Ju 87 G variants. As the Stuka descended from the sky to drop its deadly load, the scream which accompanied it had a devastating effect on the morale of anyone who was on the ground. However, the Stuka’s reputation did not survive the war it helped kick-off as it proved less and … [82], In January 1938, three Ju 87 As arrived. [78], Overall, some 550 Ju 87 As and B2s were completed at the Junkers factory in Dessau. [31], Once the Stuka became too vulnerable to fighter opposition on all fronts, work was done to develop a replacement. Some Stuka aces were lost this way. We started making air driven air sirens over 10 years ago. The Stukas were called upon to deal with the British naval threat. This was a trade-off that the Stuka siren sound Effect. Without a doubt the world's most beautiful airplane and to top it off featuring an eerily sophisticated detail. The campaign was not the classic Blitzkrieg of fast-moving armoured divisions supported by air-power as the mountainous terrain ruled out close Panzer/Stuka cooperation. As the tide turned and Allied air power grew in the autumn of 1942, the Ju 87 became very vulnerable and losses were heavy. Targets included ships at sea, the Thames estuary, the Chatham naval dockyard and Dover and night-bomber sorties made over the Channel. Production of the Ju 87 R and D variants were transferred to the Weserflug company, which was to produce 5,930 of the 6,500 Ju 87s produced in total. The intense air attack, though causing horrific losses on Soviet units, failed to destroy them. [10] The crash prompted a change to a single vertical stabiliser tail design. In September 1943, three of the Stuka units were re-equipped with the Fw 190F and G (ground attack versions) and began to be renamed as Schlachtgeschwader (attack wings). At the end of 1939 Ju-87B-l has been replaced in manufacture by diving bomber Ju-87B-2 on which the bar for removal of an expendable bomb for limits of a circle of rotation of a screw for the first time has appeared. [154] Gefechtsverband Kuhlmey, a mixed aircraft unit, which included large numbers of Stuka dive bombers, was rushed to the Finnish front in the summer of 1944 and was instrumental in halting the Soviet fourth strategic offensive. The RLM paid another 243,646 RM for development orders. [77] The move would only produce another 25 machines per month at a time when demand was increasing. After that, the Stukas were on their own. Stuka dive bomber sound. The 22 Ju 87s had helped suppress the Norwegian defenders during the ensuing Battle of Drøbak Sound, but the defenders did not surrender until after Oslo had been captured. These attacks were resumed the following winter.[108][110]. StG 2 lost 39 Ju 87s in the air and two on the ground, StG 77 lost 29 of their dive-bombers in the air and three on the ground (25 to enemy action). [132] As the 1st and 2nd Panzer Groups forced bridgeheads across the Dnieper river and closed in on Kiev, the Ju 87s again rendered invaluable support. A further container of 20 L (5 US gal) was positioned under the engine. Some of the Picchiatelli saw action in the opening phase of the Italian invasion of Greece in October 1940. The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka (from Sturzkampfflugzeug, "dive bomber") was a German dive bomber and ground-attack aircraft. The first flight of the machine took place on 31 January 1943, piloted by Hauptmann Hans-Karl Stepp. In the first 10 days of the Battle of the Kerch Peninsula, half the landing force was destroyed, while sea lanes were blocked by the Stukas inflicting heavy losses on Soviet shipping. [34] The A-1 was also fitted with a larger 3.3 m (10.8 ft) propeller. Their efforts help secure the capitulation of Soviet forces on 4 July. Here is another great story from us: P-51 Mustangs of the 8th Air Force (video included) German Ju 87 Stuka dive bomber in a field near Florence or Ravenna, Italy, 1944. [122] In 1941, Ju 87 operations in North Africa were dominated by the Siege of Tobruk, which lasted for over seven months. [140], For the German summer offensive, Fall Blau, the Luftwaffe had concentrated 1,800 aircraft into Luftflotte 4 making it the largest and most powerful air command in the world. The Soviet offensive had been completely halted from the air. The aircraft originally did not carry any registration, but later was given the registration D-UBYR. The vast majority of German ground attack aces flew this aircraft at some point in their careers. [34] The A-1 was also intended to be fitted with two 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 machine guns in each wing, but this was dropped due to excessive weight. Also visible are the two separate sliding "hoods" of the canopy. Besides it has been entered hydraulic, instead of manual controls of doors of the radiator, the improved screw with more broad blades, bombing loading was increased up to 1000 kg. This prompted Erhard Milch to visit and threaten the company into meeting the RLM's Ju 87 D-1 requirements on 23 February 1942. So famous was the Junkers Ju 87 that the term Stuka came to be identified with it in Western eyes. It had its twin stabilizers removed and a single tail fin installed due to fears over stability. Italian pilots were sent to Graz in Austria to be trained for dive-bombing aircraft. The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka aircraft. [85], Ju 87 Bs over Poland, September/October 1939, On 1 September 1939, the Wehrmacht invaded Poland, triggering World War II. The prototypes were Ju 87 B-0 airframes powered by Jumo 211 A engines. However, the Stuka demonstrated its accuracy when the small building was destroyed by four direct hits. The strategic nature of the operation made the Stuka essential. This was accepted by the RLM as an interim solution. Operating unmolested, they took a heavy toll of ground forces, suffering only light losses to ground fire. (St)/TrGr 186. The control surfaces operated in much the same way as other aircraft, with the exception of the innovative automatic pull-out system. Despite initial competition from the Henschel Hs 123, the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM) - German for the "Aviation Ministry" - turned to the designs of Herman Pohlmann of Junkers and co-designer of the K 47, Karl Plauth. [76] Skilled workers had been called up for military service in the Wehrmacht. The Stuka depended on air superiority, the very thing being contested over Britain. The Bf 109 and Fw 190 could at least fight enemy fighters on equal terms after dropping their ordnance but the Stuka could not. The canopy itself was made of Plexiglas and each compartment had its own "sliding hood" for the two crew members. Fliegerkorps, under the command of General der Flieger Bruno Loerzer, were Stab, I., II. For the Soviet summer offensive, Operation Bagration, 12 Ju 87 Gruppen and five mixed Gruppen (including Fw 190s) were on the Luftwaffe's order of battle on 26 June 1944. [49] As mentioned above, the Stuka's famous scream was due to a siren installed in the airplane (either in the leading edge of the wings or on the landing gear). Undercarriage parts were particularly in short supply. Then it was used against Polish civilians in 1939. However, Richthofen pushed for a more powerful engine. A Ju 87 B of 5/StG 2 in the North African theatre, December 1941. The Stuka first saw service in the Spanish Civil War. Production would be carried out by the Weserflug company after April 1938, but Junkers continued producing Ju 87 up until March 1940. The Stukas also participated in the Battle of Bzura which resulted in the breaking of Polish resistance. The Fw 190F started to replace the Ju 87 for day missions in 1943, but the Ju 87 continued to be used as a night nuisance-raider until the end of the war. Perhaps no weapon was as closely associated with the Nazi German in early in World War II as the Stuka dive bomber, infamous for howling, near-vertical dive attacks on warships, battlefield targets and defenseless civilian communities like merciless birds of prey.. The window in the floor of the cockpit was reinforced and four, rather than the previous three, aileron hinges were installed. [76], By 17 August 1942, production had climbed rapidly after Blohm & Voss BV 138 production was scaled down and licence work had shut down at WFG. The Stuka Siren is a particular siren that comes from solely the air-propelled siren of the Junkers Ju 87 Stuka Dive Bomber, a German airplane known for bombing in the events of Dunkirk during World War II. 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