To check for spider mites, observe plant foliage for characteristic damage. Excessive use of chlorine, though, can cause “gassing off” (objectionable chlorine odor), can irritate workers’ skin, is corrosive to equipment, and increases sanitation costs. Apply insecticides for control of flea beetles when flea beetles become numerous and defoliation is greater than 10 percent. Tomato quality at harvest is primarily based on uniform size and freedom from growth or handling defects. Overall, there were variations from month to month and from year to year. Entire death of the plant is the final result. TSWV causes plant stunting (Figure 10), ringspots (Figure 11) and bronzing on infected plants. Premature leaf drop is the ultimate result of leaf infection. Local retailers are another possible market, but you must take the time to contact produce managers and provide high-quality tomatoes when stores require them. Are you eating fresh or preserving your harvest? Historically, it is considered a secondary pest, with large populations usually occurring only after multiple applications of broad spectrum insecticides. While research has shown that chlorinated water cannot sterilize fresh produce, the rationale for adding chlorine is to keep the number of human pathogens from concentrating in the water and cross-contaminating every piece of product that passes through it. Where preventive treatments are not used, use directed sprays for cutworm control when 5 percent of the seedlings have been damaged or destroyed and cutworms are still present. First, a given dose of chlorine is added to water, some of which produces hypochlorous acid (HOCl). However, excess water at any time during growth, especially after fruit set, may increase the fruit's susceptibility to cracking (both radial and concentric), which can reduce fruit quality and yield. Young tomato transplants may be cut down just above the soil surface by cutworms. However, these mulches do not warm the soil as well as black mulches, resulting in reduced plant growth early in the spring. Use an ammonium sulfate (21-0-0) in alkaline soils or a calcium nitrate (15-0-0) in acidic soils. George E. Boyhan and W. Terry Kelley, Extension Horticulturists. Warm days and cool nights coupled with adequate moisture favor the spread and infection of the late blight pathogen. The degree to which pruning is needed will vary with the variety used but can impact yield and quality significantly. In addition, the likelihood of significant nutritional benefits from a foliar application of fertilizer to plants that have lost most of their leaves (or have a large proportion of their leaves severely damaged) is questionable. The maximum number of applications is usually more effective on sandy soils. Fertilizer materials dissolved in water and applied to the soil around plant roots at or just after transplanting are called starter solutions. Tomatoes are also susceptible to water loss through the stem scar. Develop surveys each fall to provide a written record of the species present and their population levels. Scuffing and scarring are followed by pitting and browning, because the injured tissue dries out. Subsequent tyings often do not weave between plants but simply go along one side of the plants going one way and the opposite side going the other direction. To be successful, marketing must be responsive to consumers’ demands. They may be purchased as flats and inserts, polystyrene trays or, more recently, as one-piece rigid polyethylene plastic trays. Maynard, D. M., and G. J. Hochmuth. Most importantly, since ORP measures sanitizer activity versus concentration, this value gives you a more accurate, direct measure of how well the human pathogens in your wash water are being killed. More information on the use of crop budgets can be found in Enterprise Budget Analysis. 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