Corner, and D.W. Schuen. The shrub layer is characterized by saplings of canopy species, in addition to musclewood, winterberry, poison ivy, nannyberry (Viburnum lentago), silky dogwood (Cornus amomum), gray dogwood (C. foemina), spicebush, elderberry, smooth highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum), and occasionally buttonbush in the most open and wettest swales. Other associates include sugar maple (Acer saccharum), white ash (Fraxinus americana), black ash (F. nigra), tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera), quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa), red oak (Q. rubra), basswood (Tilia americana), and American elm (Ulmus americana). Landscape ecology of silver maple (. Wetlands 26: 358-367. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Report No. Bark of the northern white cedar. 2007. 2002. Natural Communities of Michigan: Classification and Description. Species composition and dominance patterns can vary regionally. ), sedges (including Carex intumescens, C. crinita, C. disperma, C. gracillima, C. hystericina, C. lacustris, C. stricta, C. bromoides, and others), fowl manna grass (Glyceria striata), jewelweed (Impatiens capensis), northern bugle weed (Lycopus uniflorus), sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis), cinnamon fern (Osmunda cinnamomea), royal fern (O. regalis), golden ragwort (Packera aurea), rough goldenrod (Solidago rugosa), and skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus). Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 132: 252-261. Paratley, R.D., and T.J. Fahey. Characteristic low shrubs include American fly honeysuckle (Lonicera canadensis) and alder-leaved buckthorn (Rhamnus alnifolia). Plant species composition is influenced by groundwater seepage rich in calcium and magnesium carbonates. Cohen, B.S. In 1800, hard- wood swamps comprised about five percent (1.7 million acres) of the state's land base, and most were found in southern Lower Michigan. There is a hardwood swamp around the fringes of the wetland and the uplands are primarily composed of northern mesic and dry-mesic forest with a few small sandy ridges reminiscent of pine-barrens. Through flooding and herbivory, beaver can cause tree mortality and the conversion to open wetlands such as shallow ponds, emergent marsh, wet meadows, shrub swamps, or fens. State Rank: S3 - Vulnerable. M.S. Wilton, H.D. Hardwood-conifer swamp is a minerotrophic forested wetland dominated by a mixture of lowland hardwoods and conifers, occurring on organic (i.e., peat) and poorly drained mineral soils throughout Michigan. Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Natural Areas and Preserves, Columbus, OH. Fire is likely rare to infrequent, but may impact some stands in periods of extended drought, particularly in areas characterized by fire-dependent upland natural communities (e.g., oak barrens). Small trees and tall shrubs form an open to closed subcanopy, depending on canopy closure. Insect outbreaks and plant parasites can set back or kill conifers, altering community composition and structure. Version 6.1. In addition, deer browse reduces frequency and cover of understory shrubs and herbs, altering structure of all strata and producing a cascade of effects extending to pollinators of affected plant species. Arboreal vegetation, coarse woody debris, and disturbance history of mature and old-growth stands in a coniferous forested wetland. Bottomland hardwood forests are river swamps. Along with nesting birds like the barred owl and yellow-throated warbler, neo-tropical migrants use the river and forest habitat. This abundance of plant species in Michigan swamps is partially due to the higher levels of inflow and outflow of the surface waters (Prince 1997). The most common condition is a thin layer of organic soil over a poorly drained mineral substrate. 2007-21, Lansing, MI. Rare animals include the red-shouldered hawk, Indiana bat, several amphibians (smallmouth salamander, sp… The canopy is typically dominated by silver maple (Acer saccharinum), red maple (A. rubrum), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and black ash (Fraxinus nigra). Slaughter, R.K. Schillo, C.R. Cochrane. Plant community survey of the Lake Erie Drainage. Rooney, T.P., S.L. https://mnfi.anr.msu.edu/communities/classification, Natural Communities of Michigan: Classification and Description. Hardwood, MI Directions {{::location.tagLine.value.text}} Sponsored Topics. Areas of standing water are sometimes dominated by small duckweed (Lemna minor) or, in the spring, by golden saxifrage (Chrysosplenium americanum). The community is also referred to as cedar swamp. Occasionally the community occurs on deep sapric peat, especially inland, where stands may be associated with conifer or hardwood-conifer, minerotrophic peatlands. Beavertown Lakes, Newberry State Forest Management Unit and The Nature Conservancy (Two-Hearted River Forest Preserve), Luce Co. Clinton River Headwaters, Independence Oaks County Park, Oakland County Parks, Oakland Co. Long Lake, Yankee Springs State Recreation Area, Barry Co. Mill Creek Swamp, Three Rivers State Game Area, Cass Co. and St. Joseph Co. Tahquamenon River, Tahquamenon Falls State Park, Chippewa Co. and Luce Co. Anderson, K.L., and D.J. Albert, H.A. Prolonged flooding, often associated with beaver activity, leads to tree mortality and dominance by light-requiring shrubs and ground flora, typically sedges and grasses. Rudgers, and K. Clay. Substrate conditions are heterogeneous, and are often highly variable within a single stand. There are several variants that share similar vegetative composition but exhibit different dominance patterns. Additional canopy species may include American elm (Ulmus americana), basswood (Tilia americana), northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis), hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), tamarack (Larix laricina), and, locally, tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera). BioScience 48: 355-364. In large wetland complexes, southern hardwood swamp is typically associated with a variety of other herbaceous, shrub, and forested wetland communities. Leopold. However, less severe surface fires may occur with greater frequency. This layer is characterized by saplings of canopy species, in addition to mountain maple (Acer spicatum), tag alder (Alnus incana), paper birch (Betula papyrifera), musclewood (Carpinus caroliniana), red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea), gray dogwood (C. foemina), winterberry (Ilex verticillata), poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix), and spicebush (Lindera benzoin). Water levels fluctuate seasonally, with standing water typically occurring throughout winter and spring. ), northern bugle weed (Lycopus uniflorus), false nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica), marsh fern (Thelypteris palustris), cinnamon fern, sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis), jewelweed, and clearweed (Pilea spp.) 1998. In the western Upper Peninsula, hemlock shares dominance with yellow birch in some stands. Kashian, R.A. Emerald ash borer, an invasive insect, has reduced or eliminated ash as an important component of upland and lowland forest types in southeastern Michigan and has the potential to significantly impact ash populations in forested wetlands and uplands throughout the state. The role of canopy gaps in maintaining vascular plant diversity at a forested wetland in New York State. Korroch. Spruce makes up a small part of the mixed forest associations of northern Michigan, usually on wetter or colder sites. Stands are often characterized by the development of moss and litter-covered hummocks that are elevated above the saturated or inundated muck hollows. Timberland Swamp Nature Sanctuary is the Michigan Nature Association’s largest sanctuary in southeast Michigan. Kost, B.S. For a full list of references used to create this description, please refer to the natural community abstract for Hardwood-Conifer Swamp. Protection of groundwater and surface water hydrology is critical to maintaining the integrity of the hardwood-conifer swamp community. Hardwood-conifer swamp is a minerotrophic forested wetland dominated by a mixture of lowland hardwoods and conifers, occurring on organic (i.e., peat) and poorly drained mineral soils throughout Michigan. Other common understory species include saplings of canopy tree species (especially silver and red maple), musclewood (Carpinus caroliniana), and witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana). Early 19th century land surveys indicate the presence of conifer and hardwood swamps in the Going north, they can be found in hemlock-northern hardwood forests. australis), autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata), multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), and glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus). australis), purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata), and glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus). Natural community abstract for hardwood-conifer swamp. Overview: Southern hardwood swamp is a minerotrophic forested wetland dominated by variety of lowland hardwoods that occurs on poorly drained mineral or … Typical species of hollows and open, mucky flats include jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum), beggar-ticks (Bidens spp. Canopy closure varies, depending on substrate characteristics and the disturbance history of each individual site. Overview Northern hardwood swamp is a seasonally inundated, deciduous swamp forest community dominated by black ash (Fraxinus nigra) that occurs on neutral to slightly acidic, hydric mineral soils and shallow muck over mineral soils. View the Sanctuary Fact Sheet Dominance patterns vary, based largely on substrate characteristics, hydrology, and regional floristic distribution patterns. Conifers are absent or local. There is a shrub dominated wetland in the southwestern corner which is predominantly composed of buttonbush and alder. In comparison to hollows, hummocks and decaying logs have high moss cover, high moisture content, coarse substrate texture, and stable hydrology, characteristics that favor the germination and establishment of small seeds with low nutrient reserves. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI. Light-requiring invasive plant species such as reed and reed canary grass can establish in canopy gaps and in openings along streams. A mixed matrix of floodplain, southern-mesic forest, and hardwood swamp allows for nearly 50 species of nesting birds and several reptiles, such as the black rat snake. (231) 464-5809 info@coldstreamfarm.net At Kamps Hardwoods, we believe that good service is good business. Removal of mature conifers from hardwood-conifer swamps should be carefully considered to avoid converting the affected stands to hardwood dominance. Available https://mnfi.anr.msu.edu/communities/classification. NMH has expanded and grown to include a forestry crew, sawmill, dry kiln, molding department and showroom/gift shop Characteristic species of hummocks and decomposing wood include wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis), small enchanter’s nightshade (Circaea alpina), bluebead lily (Clintonia borealis), goldthread (Coptis trifolia), bunchberry (Cornus canadensis), woodfern (Dryopteris spp. Wells, B.L. Digital map. Riffell, S., T. Burton, and M. Murphy. The ground layer ranges from sparse under the shade of conifers to dense in light gaps and openings, and is characterized by the development of moss- and litter-covered hummocks and saturated, often inundated hollows on exposed muck soils. A roughly equal mix of hardwood trees and conifers is known as a hardwood-conifer swamp Rich conifer swamp Flora Trees. NatureServe, Arlington, VA. We offer unfinished and prefinished hardwood, in both solid and engineered, as well as all products necessary for installing, sanding, and finishing a hardwood floor. Slaughter, D.A. Hardwood-conifer swamp, northern hardwood swamp, floodplain forest, and wet-mesic flatwoods. Go Green! Floodplains, swamps, and seasonal pools offer water, food, and cover for many kinds of birds and mammals. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI. NatureServe. Growth is often slow because of site limitations. Occurrences of hardwood-conifer swamp are often narrow (typically <500 m wide), following slope contours.500 m wide), following slope contours. Michigan Natural Community Classification [web application]. In southeastern Minnesota, this habitat occurs as small patches in areas of groundwater seepage, usually at the base of steep slopes on level river terraces. Comparison of cedar and tamarack stands in a relict conifer swamp at Pierce Cedar Creek Institute, Barry County, Michigan. Slaughter, R.K. Schillo, C.R. Waller. Chapman. Kortenhoven, C.M. Version 6.1. Flooding plays a role in the southern hardwood swamp and emergent marsh—standing water typically occurs in swamps during winter and spring, and emergent marshes are subject to frequent or seasonal flooding. Substrate pH is also highly variable. Get directions, maps, and traffic for Hardwood, MI. Enander, and K.M. The ground layer is characteristically sparse due to prolonged inundation during the early growing season. 1975. Forest Ecology and Management 163: 119-130. Knopp, P.D. Albert, J.G. The plant parasite dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum) can increase the mortality of black spruce. Common canopy associates include yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) and American elm; occasional associates include sugar maple, silver maple, American beech (Fagus grandifolia), white ash, green ash, tulip tree, quaking aspen, swamp white oak, sycamore, and basswood. Skean, Jr. 2003. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Report No. Patchy windthrow creates small-scale canopy gaps and complex microtopography, which influence ground layer diversity. Orr, S.P., J.A. Dominance patterns among common canopy constituents vary based on site-specific factors. Historically, Canadian yew (Taxus canadensis) was a prevalent shrub in hardwood-conifer swamp, but has since been reduced or locally extirpated from most sites by heavy deer herbivory. Dead Stream Swamp, Michigan: ... (Larix laricina) is the dominant species of conifer in minerotrophic wetlands classified as rich tamarack swamp. Hydrologic disturbances, including road construction and ditching, cause peat subsidence and decomposition and alter water tables by draining water or blocking its flow. In southern Lower Michigan, hardwoods, typically red maple, black ash, and yellow birch, dominate some stands, with a significant component of white pine and northern white-cedar. (Accessed: February 7, 2021). There is a shrub dominated wetland in the southwestern corner which is predominantly composed of buttonbush and alder. https://mnfi.anr.msu.edu/communities/classification, Natural Communities of Michigan: Classification and Description. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer. These wet gaps create microheterogeneity that results in increased diversity of vascular plant species, including many species otherwise characteristic of open wetland types. Invasive plant species that can reduce diversity and alter community structure of hardwood-conifer swamps include reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), reed (Phragmites australis subsp. Soils are typically loam or silt loam, sometimes sandy loam or clay loam, of neutral to mildly alkaline pH (sandy substrates are more acidic), and sometimes covered by a thin layer of muck. NatureServe, Arlington, VA. Carved out by retreating glaciers roughly 13,000 years ago, the current basin is the headwater for the Huron, Shiawasee, and Clinton Rivers. In southern Lower Michigan, canopy dominance is often by red maple (Acer rubrum) and black ash (Fraxinus nigra), with yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) and white pine (Pinus strobus) common canopy associates. (Accessed: December 4, 2006.). 1995. This community occurs across the state, but is most common in the northern ecological landscapes. Small forested seeps embedded in a matrix of dry-mesic and mesic southern forest in southern Lower Michigan are currently placed in this classification, and sometimes include species otherwise absent in mixed hardwood swamp, including Ohio buckeye (Aesculus glabra), pawpaw (Asimina triloba), blue ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata), and hackberry. Sleeps 8 … Organic soils are typically saturated, highly decomposed, sapric peat (i.e., muck) and frequently contain pieces of coarse wood throughout their soil profiles. (Accessed: February 7, 2021). Silver maple and green ash indicate fluctuating hydrology and seasonal inundation, whereas areas dominated by red maple and black ash indicate a more stable hydrology influenced by persistent groundwater seepage. Wenger, J.D. Chapman. The warbling vireo, northern oriole, red-eyed vireo, indigo bunting, gray catbird, and eastern wood pewee are birds that live in these forests. Kost, M.A., D.A. Commonly encountered species include false nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica), marsh marigold (Caltha palustris), spring cress (Cardamine bulbosa), pink spring cress (C. douglassii), fowl manna grass (Glyceria striata), jewelweed (Impatiens capensis), swamp buttercup (Ranunculus hispidus), bishop’s cap (Mitella diphylla), wild geranium (Geranium maculatum), dwarf raspberry (Rubus pubescens), spinulose woodfern (Dryopteris carthusiana), cinnamon fern (Osmunda cinnamomea), sedges (Carex gracillima, C. intumescens, C. radiata, and C. stipata), poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia). Swamp. Corner, and D.W. Schuen. Michigan includes three regions: BCR 12 (Boreal Hardwood Transition), BCR 22 (Eastern Tallgrass Prairie), and BCR 23 (Prairie Hardwood Transition). The community occupies shallow depressions and high-order stream drainages on a variety of landforms. Southern hardwood swamp is a minerotrophic forested wetland occurring in southern Lower Michigan on mineral or occasionally organic soils dominated by a mixture of lowland hardwoods. Pin oak and swamp white oak are included in southern Lower Michigan and quaking aspen, bigtooth aspen, and balsam poplar can be found throughout northern Michigan swamps. 2006. Vegetation - Environment relations in a conifer swamp in central New York. Cochrane. Invasive plant species that threaten the diversity and community structure include garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), reed (Phragmites australis subsp. The community occurs on a variety of landforms, often associated with headwater streams and areas of groundwater discharge. In addition, the pit and mound microtopography generates fine-scale gradients of soil moisture and soil chemistry and provides a diversity of microsites for plant establishment. (Accessed: November 30, 2006.). Beaver can cause prolonged flooding that substantially alters wetland community structure, converting southern hardwood swamps to a broad range of wetland types, depending on landscape position, soils, and depth and duration of flooding. Michigan Natural Community Classification [web application]. Windthrow and fluctuating water levels are the primary natural disturbances that structure hardwood-conifer swamp. Legal. The community occupies shallow depressions and high-order stream drainages on a variety of landforms. All of our trees are available for wholesale and retail purchase. The relative contribution of fire to hardwood-conifer swamp structure and succession is unknown, but fire does create suitable conditions for the establishment of new cohorts of several canopy dominants. Haven Hill, Highland State Recreation Area, Oakland Co. Huron Swamp, Indian Springs Metropark, Oakland Co. Sheldon Forest, Stony Creek Metropark, Oakland Co. Tobico Swamp, Tobico State Game Area, Bay Co. Abrams, M.D. Forrester, J.A., T.E. Stands that contain conifers may represent converted hardwood-conifer swamp, rich tamarack swamp, or rich conifer swamp. Michigan Whitetail Deer Hunting Lodge Hopkins Creek Whitetails is endless acres of hardwood forest, cedar swamp, grasslands, designated trout stream, and farmlands. Wells, B.L. Saturated mucks are typically of neutral pH, but may be acidic near the surface, especially where associated with sphagnum mosses or where coniferous needle mats accumulate. Global Rank: G4 - Apparently secure Rich conifer swamp, rich tamarack swamp, floodplain forest, northern hardwood swamp, southern hardwood swamp, and mesic northern forest. Windthrow creates a pit and mound microtopography, and variously sized canopy gaps, which promote regeneration of a diverse overstory. Cohen, J.G., M.A. Schneider, G.J., and K.E. Michigan; Top Swamps in Michigan. Plant community survey of the Lake Erie Drainage. Southern hardwood swamp occurs in poorly drained depressions on glacial lakeplain, outwash plains and channels, end moraines, till plains, and perched dunes. Reduction of deer densities at the landscape-scale will promote recovery of tree seedling, shrub, and herb populations. Price, D.M. Conversion of conifer-dominated stands to hardwood dominance is frequently associated with anthropogenic disturbances such as logging, hydrologic alteration, and fire suppression. Hart, J.B. Raab, D.L. 2006. Slaughter, B.S., J.G. This type is best developed in glaciated southeastern Wisconsin but was not of large extent even prior to EuroAmerican settlement. 2007. Factors affecting the regeneration of northern white cedar in lowland forests of the Upper Great Lakes region, USA. Michigan Swamps: A list of all the Swamps in Michigan with maps, driving directions and a local area search function. Monitoring and control efforts to detect and remove these and other invasive species are important for protecting affected and surrounding natural communities. The larch sawfly (Pristophora erichsonii), larch casebearer (Coleophora laricella), and spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) can repeatedly defoliate and kill tamarack. Michigan is the western edge of its range and it … Maintaining mature, seed-bearing conifer trees is important for ensuring the continued presence of seed sources within the wetland. ZERO-WASTE PROCEDURES. Solheim, and D.M. There, most of the upland forest has been replaced by agricultural land uses. Black ash, northern white- cedar, quaking aspen, balsam poplar, American elm, balsam fir and cotton-wood each make up 2 to 4 percent of the volume. NatureServe. Michigan’s presettlement vegetation, as interpreted from the General Land Office Surveys 1816-1856. Stands associated with hardwood-conifer swamp or rich tamarack swamp may occasionally contain scattered individuals of tamarack (Larix laricina), white pine (Pinus strobus), hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), or northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis). Prior to the introduction and spread of Dutch elm disease, American elm was an important canopy constituent, but is now largely relegated to the subcanopy and sapling layers. State Rank: S3 - Vulnerable. Historically, the Maumee Lake Plain in southeastern Michigan supported large areas of lowland hardwood forest that bordered lakeplain prairie, lakeplain oak openings, wet-mesic flatwoods, and mesic southern forest. High deer density has lead to significant browse pressure on conifer seedlings and saplings and resulted in poor regeneration in much of the state. Pests of potential significant impact include the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), which has the potential to cause significant hemlock mortality if it spreads throughout Michigan, and the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), which has already decimated ash populations in southeastern Lower Michigan. Return intervals for destructive crown fires in conifer-dominated swamps have been estimated at up to 3,000 years in north-central Lower Michigan. Other species include the wood duck, cottontail rabbit, raccoon, woodcock, white-tailed deer, wild turkey, and many species of migratory waterfowl. Kost. A rare habitat type called southern hardwood swamp is being restored in what was once a degraded corner of the Center, thanks to a grant from the U.S. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [Web application]. Accumulation of ice and snow in tree crowns increases the likelihood of windthrow or trunk snap, particularly for trees weakened by pests or fungal pathogens. 1998. 100 pp. Swamp hardwoods may occur along rivers and bottomlands as well as in swamplands. Operated on the campus of Michigan State University, shop.msu.edu carries a variety of exclusive Spartan items. In the 1990's, a 24x24 Log Cabin was built of White Cedar from swamp on property. The vicinity surrounding Bessey Creek is part of an outwash-lake plain swamp ecosystem. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Michigan State University Extension, Lansing, Michigan. Wilton, H.D. Northern Michigan Hardwoods, Inc. is committed to producing the finest in hardwood lumber and flooring. Lincoln, A.P. Schneider, G.J., and K.E. Elsewhere in northern Michigan, lowland hardwoods and boreal conifers exhibit mixed dominance patterns that require further study. Southern hardwood swamp is a minerotrophic forested wetland occurring in southern Lower Michigan on mineral or occasionally organic soils dominated by a mixture of lowland hardwoods. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Michigan State University Extension, Lansing, Michigan. Significant hydrological processes impacting hardwood-conifer swamp include groundwater seepage, water table fluctuation, seasonal inundation, and flooding events (often associated with beaver activity). Kost, B.S. Hart, J.B. Raab, D.L. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, About the Natural Community Classification. Albert, H.A. Distribution is fairly uniform across the state, but swamp hardwoods occupy a disproportionately high percentage of the southern Lower Peninsula forest. Removal of coarse woody debris or senesced trees from hardwood-conifer swamps should be avoided or minimized to ensure the continued viability of the system. Invasive plants can inhibit native tree seedlings: Testing potential allelopathic mechanisms. 1986. Species composition within hardwood-conifer swamps exhibits considerable variation across the state. Natural Communities of Michigan: Classification and Description. The red maple paradox. Enander, and K.M. Price, D.M. View the Sanctuary Fact Sheet Help. 2020. Global Rank: G3 - Vulnerable Proceeds from sales help benefit scholarships, programs, and initiatives. Seedlings of several characteristic hardwood-conifer swamp canopy tree species (e.g., yellow birch, white pine, northern white-cedar, and hemlock) preferentially germinate and establish on hummocks and/or decaying logs versus muck or litter-covered hollows. Wetlands 26: 107-118. Michigan Botanist 14: 124-130. The primary natural processes structuring hardwood-conifer swamp are windthrow and dynamics of surface water and groundwater. Pin oak and swamp white oak are included in southern Lower Michigan and quaking aspen, big- tooth aspen, and balsam poplar can be found throughout northern Michigan swamps. Korroch. Mineral soils are often acidic. The subcanopy and tall shrub layers can range from open to closed, depending on canopy closure. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer. Poorly drained wetland, fresh or saltwater, wooded or grassy, possibly covered with open water. Contact Cold Stream Farm in Michigan to order Oak Trees. Much of the topography in the western Upper Peninsula is controlled by bedrock; that is, the hills and valleys consist of rock rather than of loose glacial debris like most of the remainder of the state. 2002. Slaughter, B.S., and J.D. In northern Michigan, canopy dominance is often by hemlock, and associates may include yellow birch, red maple, black ash, basswood, American elm, balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera), white pine, northern white-cedar, tamarack, balsam fir (Abies balsamea), white spruce (Picea glauca), and black spruce (P. mariana). 2020. You are greeted by a majestic maple ridge as you enter this 120 Acre "Hunter's dream" property, 1 mile East of Hardwood Impoundment Lake in Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Characterization of wetland hydrodynamics using HGM and subclassification methods in southeastern Michigan, USA. The creation of canopy gaps and associated microtopographic heterogeneity has important consequences for the establishment and recruitment of canopy trees. Regeneration of hardwood-conifer swamp canopy trees, particularly of conifers, relies on the presence of suitable sites for germination and establishment within the stand. They are found along rivers and streams of the southeast and south central United States, generally in broad floodplains. 1995. Plant Ecology 181: 153-165. • Northern Hardwood Swamp* • Hardwood-Conifer Swamp* • Rich Tamarack Swamp* • Rich Conifer Swamp* • Poor Conifer Swamp . Upland communities bordering southern hardwood swamp are usually forested, with mesic southern forest being most common. Vegetation (living and dead), depth to the water table, and groundwater movement all influence substrate alkalinity. Michigan’s presettlement vegetation, as interpreted from the General Land Office surveys 1816-1856. Albert, J.M. Red maple, green ash and silver maple account for over half the volume. Weber, and K.A. Southern hardwood swamp is a forested wetland community type found in insular basins with seasonally high water tables. Vines are often conspicuous in hardwood-conifer swamps, particularly in canopy gaps and along streams. Check flight prices and hotel availability for your visit. Cohen, B.S. Management should focus on protecting decaying logs and hummocks that are favored germination sites for yellow birch, white pine, northern white-cedar, and hemlock. Available http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. Birds in depressional forested wetlands: Area and habitat requirements and model uncertainty. Within Michigan, 37 bird species of conservation concern utilize these regions as breeding grounds, pass through during migration, or live there throughout the year. The ground layer ranges from sparse under the dense shade of hardwoods or in areas subject to seasonal inundation to dense in light gaps and openings. 1999. For a full list of references used to create this description, please refer to the natural community abstract for Southern Hardwood Swamp. Conifers are absent or local. Groundwater seepage affects species composition and structure. Also defoliates both black spruce and balsam fir but tends to be more detrimental to the water,... Inventory, about the Natural community abstract for hardwood-conifer swamp of lakes, rivers, and glossy buckthorn ( alnus! Open, mucky flats include jack-in-the-pulpit ( Arisaema triphyllum ), beggar-ticks ( Bidens spp the! S presettlement vegetation, coarse woody debris, and wet-mesic flatwoods for the establishment and recruitment of trees. Arbor, MI directions { {::location.tagLine.value.text } } Sponsored Topics 2006. ) moss and litter-covered hummocks are. Purple loosestrife ( Lythrum salicaria ), depth to the near exclusion of other tree species 15 percent the... Hummocks that are elevated above the saturated or inundated muck hollows New York and high! Are several variants that share similar vegetative composition but exhibit different dominance patterns,! Vulnerable State Rank: S3 - Vulnerable T. Burton, and disturbance history of conifers... 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Pooling of water in hemlock-northern hardwood forests forest experiences frequent, small windthrow gaps that for! With headwater streams and areas of deep ( > 1 m ) organic deposition are common, especially,. And the disturbance history of mature and old-growth stands in a relict conifer swamp trees. Water tables with conifer or hardwood-conifer, minerotrophic peatlands shrub layers can range open. University Extension, Lansing, Michigan flooring from top-quality mills from all the! About the Natural community Classification anthropogenic disturbances such as logging, hydrologic alteration associated with a variety of other species... Pressure on conifer seedlings and saplings and resulted in poor regeneration in much of the southern Peninsula. High percentage of the Upper Great lakes region, USA usually on wetter or sites! Stands, sometimes to the long-term viability of southern hardwood swamp glaciated southeastern but... Apparently secure State Rank: G4 - Apparently secure State Rank: G4 - Apparently secure Rank. Of the shade-tolerant, canopy species hawk, Indiana bat, several amphibians ( smallmouth,... History of each individual site different dominance patterns vary, based largely on substrate characteristics, hydrology, and pools... Swamp hardwoods may occur along rivers and bottomlands as well as in.... And saplings and resulted in poor regeneration in much of the hardwood-conifer swamp rich conifer swamp at Pierce Creek... Typical species of hollows and open, mucky flats include jack-in-the-pulpit ( Arisaema triphyllum ) autumn. Million acres of forestland — about 15 percent of the hardwood-conifer swamp rich conifer swamp in southwestern Michigan Ann,. Especially in seeps about 2.4 million acres of forestland — about 15 percent of the southeast and central. To avoid converting the affected stands to hardwood dominance promote regeneration of northern Michigan, lowland hardwoods and conifers. Surface fires may occur with greater frequency to order Oak trees regeneration in much of the southeast and central... Of relatively stable hydrology are typically dominated by red maple and black ash ohio Department of areas... Poorly drained mineral substrate there is a forested wetland community type found in insular basins with seasonally high table... Usually forested, with mesic southern forest being most common in the southwestern corner which predominantly... Share similar vegetative composition but exhibit different dominance patterns 55 tree species and in... Groundwater and surface water and groundwater and black ash the residual mucky and! Invasive species are important for ensuring the continued viability of the mixed associations! Michigan to order Oak trees typically dominated by red maple, green ash and silver maple account for over the. Southeast Michigan sparse due to prolonged inundation during the early growing season colder sites substrate. Primary Natural disturbances that structure hardwood-conifer swamp community Inventory, Michigan State University, shop.msu.edu carries variety... Different dominance patterns Lansing, Michigan ensuring the continued viability of southern swamp. Prolonged pooling of water Pierce cedar Creek Institute, Barry County, Michigan University!